World Weather News

Death Valley high temperature record of July 10, 1913

From "Whatts up with That"

*On July 10,Temperature recordings at the Greenland Ranch weather station in Death Valley, California during the intense heat wave of July 1913.  This excerpt about the record-breaking heat wave comes from an article posted during January 1922 in the meteorological journal Monthly Weather Review which is still in publication today. Source: NOAA 1913, Death Valley, California reached an amazing 134 degrees…the hottest temperature ever reliably recorded in a year with many remarkable weather events*
The high temperature in Death Valley, California on Friday will come close to 120°F, but this is still well short of the all-time record there that occurred way back in 1913. On July 10th, 1913, the weather observer at Greenland Ranch in Death Valley recorded a high temperature of 134°F. One hundred and seven years later, this is still the highest air temperature ever reliably recorded on Earth. In addition to this all-time and worldwide high temperature record, the year of 1913 produced numerous other extreme weather events. 
The intense heat of July 1913 in California was not the only extreme heat measured that year in the US.  There was a widespread heat wave in June of that same year across the eastern half of the nation which resulted in many readings above 100°F.  In fact, NOAA’s official temperature records still cite June 16, 1913 as the hottest ever on a nationwide basis for that particular date.  In addition to the excessive heat seen across the US that year, there are newspaper articles from that same time period suggesting high heat may have taken place in others part of the world. 
On September 12th, 2012, the WMO officially re-certified the 134 degree reading of July 10th, 1913 at Death Valley, California as the all-time highest air temperature ever recorded on Earth after evidence surfaced suggesting the Libya record of 136°F was based on a reading from a bad thermometer that was placed in the wrong place (near asphalt) and read by an untrained observer

Hottest Day Ever in Australia Confirmed: Bourke 51.7°C, 3rd January 1909

From "Whatts up with That"

The Australian Bureau of Meteorology deleted what was long regarded as the hottest day ever recorded in Australia – Bourke’s 125°F (51.7°C) on the 3rd January 1909. This record* was deleted, falsely claiming that this was likely some sort of ‘observational error’, as no other official weather stations recorded high temperatures on that day.Australian Bureau of Meteorology deleted what was long regarded as the hottest day ever recorded in Australia – Bourke’s 125°F (51.7°C) on the 3rd January 1909. This record* was deleted, falsely claiming that this was likely some sort of ‘observational error’, as no other official weather stations recorded high temperatures on that day.

 Photograph of the the relevant page from the observations book, and it shows 123°F was recorded at 9am on the morning of Monday 4th January 1909 – published here for the first time. This was the highest temperature in the previous 24 hours and corroborates what must now be recognised as the hottest day ever recorded in Australia of 51.7°C (125°F) degrees at Bourke on the afternoon of Sunday 3rd January 1909.

photographed by Craig Kelly MP. Note 123F recorded at 9am on 4th January 1909.


A Dark Month for Seattle

There have a lot of complaints about our cloudy weather of the past month--and it has been a bit depressing.

Yes, western Washington typically "enjoys" a cloudy, June gloom this time of the year, as high pressure builds over the eastern Pacific, pushing cloudy marine air up to the Cascade crest.

June 29th

Has this year been particularly bad?  The essential answer: Yes, but not by a lot.

We can start with the total monthly radiation reaching the ground in Seattle at the WSU AgWeather site near the UW, which only goes back to 2012.  June 2020 was the darkest June since 2012--eight years.  June 2015, when high pressure dominated our region, was far brighter.  2012 was abysmal.

From Cliff Mass Blog

20th June 2020..
New world record all time Tmax for the polar regions with 38.0C at Verkhoyansk....Info from Max.

Climate data for Verkhoyansk
Record high °C (°F)−9.5
Average high °C (°F)−42.2
Daily mean °C (°F)−45.3
Average low °C (°F)−48.3
Record low °C (°F)−67.8
Average precipitation mm (inches)6
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Average snowy days171512840004171816111
Average relative humidity (%)74746963585761697478777573
Mean monthly sunshine hours684219280309354327219132842612,041

May snowfall in Turkey

10 May 2020 – “Very rare” May snowfall surprises residents of Ardahan.
Flaky snowfall imbued the center of the city with white.
Trees that were prepared to bloom in May were covered by so much snow that branches of some trees were broken.

10th May 2020

Latest EVER Snowfall In New York City Central Park

Unusual Weather:Polar vortex brings record cold temps, snow to the eastern US

Doug Stanglin

A polar vortex packing bone-chilling temperatures is turning the usually mild Mother's Day weekend into a preview of winter, bringing snow flurries to Manhattan on Saturday and even 10 inches of snow to northern New England.
The powerful stream of cold air, which normally confines itself to the Arctic, slipped southward instead and brought frigid temperatures and un-springlike snow to Canada and the eastern two-thirds of the United States.
The National Weather Service says the cold-air blast will hit the Eastern, Central and Southern U.S. during the weekend, with some snow from the Midwest to the Appalachians.
Some higher elevations in northern New York and New England reported snowfall accumulations Saturday of up to 10 inches, while traces of snow were seen along the coast from Maine to Boston to as far south as Manhattan.
New York City got in on the action early, with about a half-hour of snow early Saturday. That tied the record, set in 1977, for the latest date in spring snow was documented in Central Park, according to the NWS.
Detroit, Pittsburgh and New York City's Central Park also posted records low for the day, according to AccuWeather. Washington, D.C., with an overnight low of 37, smashed a 54-year-old record for the lowest day in May. The nation's capital was also flirting with a new record for the coldest high temperature for the day — 52 degrees — set in 1877

30th April 2020:

Can Meteorologists Help Epidemiologists with Coronavirus?

From Cliff Mass Weather Blog.

Meteorologists involved in the large U.S. numerical weather prediction community.  And perhaps

meteorologists can help epidemiologists and the U.S. government to get a handle on the coronavirus situation.

Now don't take this blog as one uppity weather guy trying to give advice "outside his lane."    A published paper in the Journal of Infectious Diseases (2016), said much of the same, with the authors noting the huge similarities in the work meteorologists and epidemiologists do and suggesting that the epidemiological community is roughly 40 years behind the numerical weather prediction enterprise.  They observed that both epidemiological and numerical weather prediction models are attempting to simulate complex systems with exponential error growth, and thus have great sensitivity to initial conditions.
So perhaps the experience of meteorologists, who spend much of their time thinking about how to improve weather forecasting, may be relevant to the current crisis.

The First Step in Prediction:  Describing the Initial State of the System
To predict the future you need to know what is happening now. The better you can describe the initial starting point of forecasts, the better the forecast.
Meteorologists have spent 3/4 of a century on such work, first with surface observations and balloon-launched radiosondes, and later with radars and satellite observations.  Billions have been invested in the weather observing system, which gives us a three-dimensional observational description of atmospheric structure.  Big data.  And we have learned how to quality control and combine the data with complex data assimilation techniques, with the resulting description of the atmosphere immensely improving our predictions.  This work is completed operationally by large, permanent groups such as NOAA and NASA, with large interactions with the research community.

Contrast this to the unfortunate state of epidemiologists predicting the future of the coronavirus.

They have very little data on what is happening now.  They don't know who in the population is currently infected or has been infected.  They don't even know the percentage of the current population that is infected.   Without such information, there is no way epidemiologists can realistically simulate the future of the pandemic.  They are trying, of course, but the results have been disappointing.

Meteorologists use complex, full-physics models comprised of equations that predict the future  evolution of the atmosphere.  Then we apply statistical corrections to make the forecasts even better.

The meteorological community has a long and successful track record in an analogous enterprise, showing the importance of massive data collection to describe the environment you wish to predict, the value of sophisticated and well-tested models to make the prediction, and the necessity to maintain a dedicated governmental group that is responsible for state-of-science prediction.

Perhaps this approach should be considered by the infectious disease community. and the experience of the numerical weather prediction community might be useful.


20th April2020

Denver breaks low temperature record set 119 years ago

Record low for the second day in a row.
Denver International Airport set a record low temp yesterday of 12F, according to the National Weather Service. The previous low temp for April 17 of 13F was set in 1901.
DIA also set a record low on Thursday when reaching 19 degrees, breaking the old record of 22 degrees.
On Thursday, Northern Colorado was on a Winter Storm Warning with 14 inches of snowfall in Fort Collins and 12 inches in Denver.
Krakatoa erupting again – Video

Violent eruption propels ash to 47,000 ft (15 km) altitude
10 Apr 2020 – The famous volcano, located between the islands of Java and Sumatra in the Indonesian province of Lampung, reportedly began erupting at 10:35 p.m. local time.
“Krakatau is erupting nonstop for 2 hours,” one social media user posted. “I live in Bogor and I can hear the noises as clear as everybody else hear. This feels like a nightmare”.
The volcano’s rumble was heard very clearly in West Java and Indonesia’s capital of Jakarta.
Satellite images picked up a large magmatic eruption of ash and plume propelled into the sky.

View from Webcam
According the The Express, the eruption was “relatively small”, with less material thrown high than in previous eruptions.

Thursday, April 2, 2020

It's Bizarre: March was Colder than January In Seattle

Everything seems topsy turvy and unnatural these days, and there is a meteorological oddity that must be added to the list:

March was cold than January in Seattle this year.

I knew March was a cool one, but it was not until Dr. Joseph Zagrodnik, a talented atmospheric scientist working at WSU's AgWeatherNet organization, pointed in out to me, did I realize how unusual the past month had been.

According to Dr. Zagrodnik, the average temp in March at Sea-Tac Airport was 44.8 degrees F compared to 45.1 F in January.

How unusual is this?  Rare, but not unprecedented.  March has been cooler than January 8 times in the 126 years we have temperature records in Seattle, with the last time it occurred in 2006.

To appreciate this oddity visually, the graph below shows the numbers of year the March minus January temperatures fell in various bins.  On average, March is about 5F warmer than January, but in some extreme years March has been as much as 17F warmer.  That would get folks attention. Ten years were close to zero (within .5F of zero) and only a handful (3) were .5 to 1.5F cooler in March.

Another way to appreciate our cool March would be to look at a map of the difference of this year's March temperature from normal  (see below).  Western Washington was much cooler than normal, with some areas 4-5F cooler than typical values.    More normal temperatures east of the Cascade crest.

I know your next question: Why?

A good question. It has to do with an unusual weather pattern that has persisted over the North Pacific during the past month, one that includes a ridge of high pressure offshore with persistent cool, northerly flow over the Northwest.

The figure below  shows the  height (like pressure) anomalies (difference from normal) around 18,000 ft above the surface (500 h Pa pressure).  Unusually high heights offshore (red) and lower than normal heights (blue/purple).  This is a cold pattern for us, with unusually strong/cold northerly flow over the Northwest coast.

Finally, I wanted to show you an extraordinary picture taken yesterday (Wednesday) around 5:20 PM from the Seattle SpaceNeedle PanoCam.   With cold air aloft and great instability, there was a magnificent line of cumulus clouds along the western slopes of the Cascades.  Just stunning.


Volcanic activity worldwide 28 Mar 2020: Popocatépetl volcano, Merapi, Ibu, Dukono, Reventador, San...

Saturday Mar 28, 2020 21:00 PM | BY: SEVERAL CONTRIBUTORS

Map of today's active volcanoes
Map of today's active volcanoes
Satellite image of Ibu volcano on 27 Mar 2020
Satellite image of Ibu volcano on 27 Mar 2020
Satellite image of Merapi volcano on 28 Mar 2020
Satellite image of Merapi volcano on 28 Mar 2020
Ibu (Halmahera, Indonesia)(27 Mar) Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Darwin (VAAC) issued the following report: VA TO 5200FT ABOVE SEA LEVEL.

Merapi (Central Java, Indonesia): Volcanic Ash Advisory Center Darwin (VAAC) issued the following report: ERUPTION OBSERVED ON WEBCAM OBS VA DTG:28/1235Z

Dukono (Halmahera): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Darwin warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 7000 ft (2100 m) altitude or flight level 070 and is moving at 5 kts in N direction.
The full report is as follows: CONTINUOUS VA EMISSION TO FL070 OBS VA DTG:28/1830Z to 7000 ft (2100 m)

Popocatépetl (Central Mexico): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 22000 ft (6700 m) altitude or flight level 220 .
The full report is as follows: VA EM OBS IN STLT. to 22000 ft (6700 m)

Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia): Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 22000 ft (6700 m) altitude or flight level 220 .
The full report is as follows: VA EM RPRTD. to 22000 ft (6700 m)

Sangay (Ecuador)(28 Mar) Explosive activity continues. Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) Washington warned about a volcanic ash plume that rose up to estimated 22000 ft (6700 m) altitude or flight level 220 and is moving at 10 kts in SW direction.

Scientists recording the first-ever heatwave event in Antarctica over the 2019-20 summer period.
Researchers from the Australian Antarctic Program recorded the heat wave at the Casey Research Station — located on the northern part of Bailey Peninsula on the Budd Coast — between January 23 and 26, which falls in the region’s summer season.
During the three days, minimum temperatures climbed above zero, and maximum temperatures reached above 7.5 degrees Celsius. On January 24, its highest maximum of 9.2°C was recorded, almost 7°C above Casey’s 30-year mean for the month.

“Heatwaves are classified as three consecutive days with both extreme maximum and minimum temperatures,” University of Wollongong biologist Sharon Robinson explained.

“In the 31-year record for Casey, maximum temperature of 9.2 degrees Celsius is 6.9 degrees Celsius higher than the mean maximum temperature for the station, while the minimum is 0.2 degrees Celsius higher,” Robinson said.

31st March 2020
Messgae from Maximiliano from Thailand :
"Hallo Rajesh
Hottest T ever of March in THailand 42.9C yesterday and today recorded at Thoen.
Also hottest March ever nationwide as always.
Every month Thailand is setting records heat,never been below average not even a single day of the year.
Heat indexes are expected to rise around 70C next weeks."

Earth’s third-highest summit, Kanchenjunga, rises more than 8500 meters above sea level along the border of Nepal and India.
Image of the Day for March 29, 2020

31st March 2020

Last Friday, 20th March 2020,  Antarctica set a record for its coldest March temp ever recorded, not just for the day, but for the entire month.
The Vostok Station clocked a bone-chilling -75.3C (-103.54F) on the morning of Friday, March 20, as spotted by @TempGlobal on Twitter:

Antarctica Melts Under Its Hottest Days on Record

Antarctica Melts Under Its Hottest Days on Record
On February 6, 2020, weather stations recorded the hottest temperature on record for Antarctica. Thermometers at the Esperanza Base on the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula reached 18.3°C (64.9°F)—around the same temperature as Los Angeles that day. The warm spell caused widespread melting on nearby glaciers.
The warm temperatures arrived on February 5 and continued until February 13, 2020. The images above show melting on the ice cap of Eagle Island and were acquired by the Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8 on February 4 and February 13, 2020.
The heat is apparent on the map below, which shows temperatures across the Antarctic Peninsula on February 9, 2020. The map was derived from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) model, and represents air temperatures at 2 meters (about 6.5 feet) above the ground. The darkest red areas are where the model shows temperatures surpassing 10°C (50°F).
Mauri Pelto, a glaciologist at Nichols College observed that during the warming event, around 1.5 square kilometers (0.9 square miles) of snowpack became saturated with meltwater (shown in blue above). According to climate models, Eagle Island experienced peak melt—30 millimeters (1 inch)—on February 6. In total, snowpack on Eagle Island melted 106 millimeters (4 inches) from February 6- February 11. About 20 percent of seasonal snow accumulation in the region melted in this one event on Eagle Island.
“I haven’t seen melt ponds develop this quickly in Antarctica,” said Pelto. “You see these kinds of melt events in Alaska and Greenland, but not usually in Antarctica.” He also used satellite images to detect widespread surface melting nearby on Boydell Glacier.
Pelto noted that such rapid melting is caused by sustained high temperatures significantly above freezing. Such persistent warmth was not typical in Antarctica until the 21st century, but it has become more common in recent years.
The warm temperatures of February 2020 were caused by a combination of meteorological elements. A ridge of high pressure was centered over Cape Horn at the beginning of the month, and it allowed warm temperatures to build. Typically, the peninsula is shielded from warm air masses by the Southern Hemisphere westerlies, a band of strong winds that circle the continent. However, the westerlies were in a weakened state, which allowed the extra-tropical warm air to cross the Southern Ocean and reach the ice sheet. Sea surface temperatures in the area were also higher than average by about 2-3°C.
Dry, warm foehn winds also could have played a part. Foehn winds are strong, gusty winds that cause downslope windstorms on mountains, often bringing warm air with them. In February 2020, westerly winds ran into the Antarctic Peninsula Cordillera. As such winds travel up the mountains, the air typically cools and condenses to form rain or snow clouds. As that water vapor condenses into liquid water or ice, heat is released into the surrounding air. This warm, dry air travels downslope on the other side of the mountains, bringing blasts of heat to parts of the peninsula. The drier air means fewer low-lying clouds and potentially more direct sunlight east of the mountain range.
“Two things that can make a foehn-induced melt event stronger are stronger winds and higher temperatures,” said Rajashree Tri Datta, an atmospheric researcher at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. With warmer air in the surrounding atmosphere and ocean, the conditions were conducive this month for a foehn wind event.
This February heatwave was the third major melt event of the 2019-2020 summer, following warm spells in November 2019 and January 2020. “If you think about this one event in February, it isn’t that significant,” said Pelto. “It’s more significant that these events are coming more frequently.“
NASA Earth Observatory images by Joshua Stevens, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey and GEOS-5 data from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at NASA GSFC. Story by Kasha Patel.

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Posted Friday 7th  afternoon:   Weather for Farmers in Aurangabad District: There will be less and little rainfall in the region from Friday...